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Periodontal Disease: What Are the Causes, Symptoms and Treatments

Periodontal Disease: What Are the Causes, Symptoms and Treatments

Periodontal disease is the infection of the structures around the teeth, which is also known as gum disease. It includes your gums, cementum which covers the root, the alveolar bone and the periodontal ligament. After many researches and studies

It has been confirmed that dental plaque is the major reason for periodontal disease.

In the past few years, periodontal disease had been linked to various diseases. More research is required in this regard but still researchers have been trying to establish links between the gum disease and:

  • Premature Births
  • Stroke
  • Diabetes
  • Heart Disease and Atherosclerosis
  • Respiratory Diseases

Causes of Periodontal Disease

Bacteria in the dental plaque are the root cause of periodontal disease. Dental plaque is a sticky material which forms on your teeth after brushing. The cells of your immune system release substances which damage and inflame the gums, alveolar bone or periodontal ligament in order to get rid of bacteria. It leads to bleeding and swollen gums which is an early sign of gingivitis. The damages due to periodontal disease loosen the teeth which is a sign of severe periodontitis.

Symptoms of Periodontal Disease

In the initial stages of periodontal disease, people develop these symptoms:

  • Mouth sores
  • Red, tender and swollen gums
  • Pain in the mouth
  • Constant bad breath
  • Pus between teeth and the gums
  • Bleeding while eating hard food, flossing or brushing
  • Loose tooth or separated tooth
  • Gum feels tender when touched

Treatments of Periodontal Disease

There are two types of treatment available:

  • Non-Surgical
  • Surgical


There are three sub-types of non-surgical treatment:

  • Scaling
    It removes bacteria and tartar from the tooth surfaces and beneath your gums as well. It can be performed using ultrasonic device or laser device.
  • Root Planing
    It flattens the root surfaces and discourages further buildup of bacteria and tartar. It removes the byproducts of bacteria which contribute to delay healing, reattachment and inflammation of the gum to the tooth surfaces.
  • Antibiotics
    Oral or topical antibiotics can help control bacterial infections. Antibiotic mouth rinses or gels containing antibiotics are the best examples of oral or topical antibiotics. These should be inserted between the teeth and gums.

Surgical Treatments

Some of the popular surgical treatments are:

  • Bone Grafting
    It is required when periodontitis destroys the bone that surrounds your tooth root. Graft generally comprises of small fragments of one’s own bone and can also be laminated or synthetic. Bone graft is an effective remedy for tooth loss as it holds tooth in place. It also helps in the regrowth of natural bone.
  • Flap Surgery
    In flap surgery, gums are separated from teeth and folded back temporarily. It is good for people with moderate or advance periodontitis.

Follow good oral hygiene habits and maintain a great dental health to prevent gum disease.

Stellar Dental is a leading and trusted dental clinic at Maryland. We would love to guide you through periodontal disease. Please contact us for more details.

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